Murmurs can be challenging to diagnose in adults, as well as in children unless they are easily heard. “Although most are not pathologic, a murmur may be the sole manifestation of serious heart disease”

Murmurs can be challenging to diagnose in adults, as well as in children unless they are easily heard. “Although most are not pathologic, a murmur may be the sole manifestation of serious heart disease” (Frank, Jennifer, & Jacobe, Kathyrn, 2011). Since murmurs may be the only symptom pointing to serious heart complications, it is essential to follow up and have further testing done when one is first detected.

In this scenario, a grade II/VI systolic murmur is detected in a 16 yr old male athlete. “This means the murmur is grade 2 on a scale of 1 to 6 (“Medline Plus, 2019).  The patient is in a slightly recumbent position, which can also affect the way the murmur sounds. There are several things to consider when a murmur is detected for the first time, especially in an adolescent. Does the murmur occur during systolic or diastolic contraction? Does the murmur change when the patient moves? Can it be heard in other areas, such as the neck, back or the chest? Also, where is it the loudest? Depending on the answer to these questions, the patient might need to be referred to a cardiologist for further testing.

It also states in the scenario that there is no family history of premature cardiac death, but it does not state that there is no cardiac history in the family. The patient and the parents would need to be questioned further to see what the extent is, if any, of any cardiac disease. They also need to be questioned to see if there is a history of congenital heart disease, maternal diabetes, exposure to alcohol or drugs while in utero, any genetic disorders, and history of Kawasaki disease or rheumatic fever. If the patient or family member has any one of these or a combination of them, it is cause for alarm, and the patient needs to be screened for a more serious heart condition.

Behavior can also play a part in heart murmurs in adolescents. The patient would need to be examined while doing physical exercise to see if he has any breathing difficulties and to see how his heart acts under physical exertion and stress. If the patient becomes short of breath or the murmur increases to a 3 or above, these are big red flags and could indicate an underlying cardiac condition. These are not conclusive that there is more going on, it could be that the child is overweight or out of shape, but it is better to have the child examined by a cardiologist to make sure there is nothing wrong with his heart. The cardiologist will most likely order a chest x-ray and an echocardiogram. “Echocardiogram (also called “echo” or cardiac ultrasound): sound waves create an image of the heart” (Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, 2018). The Echo will be the most conclusive test to determine if there are any abnormalities with his heart. If I were the provider for an adolescent who presented with a murmur for the first time, I would do a thorough examination, including all of the questions and tests described above. If anything during these were abnormal, I would refer him to a pediatric cardiologist to determine if there is anything wrong with his heart.

References

Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia (2018). Heart murmur in children.

https://www.chop.edu/conditions-diseases/heart-murmur

Frank, Jennifer, & Jacobe, Kathyrn (2011). Evaluation and management of heart murmurs in children. American family physician. https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/1001/p793.html

Medline Plus (2019) Heart murmurs https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003266.htm.

REPLY  QUOTE EMAIL AUTHOR

Bottom of Form

Select: All None

 

Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
$26
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages
Urgency
Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our guarantees

Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.

Money-back guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

Read more

Zero-plagiarism guarantee

Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

Read more

Free-revision policy

Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.

Read more

Privacy policy

Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.

Read more

Fair-cooperation guarantee

By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.

Read more