The Core Leadership Theories
One section of your dissertation will be a literature review, which will be the foundation for your research. What is a literature review? A literature review summarizes and synthesizes arguments and ideas of others without adding new contributions. The assignments in this class will provide you the opportunity to learn how to write a literature review as you analyze, evaluate, and synthesize existing literature on leadership constructs.
This example paper/template has sections for each of the assignments in Weeks 1 through 7, and collectively will be the final paper due in Week 8. Each week after you receive instructor feedback you are expected to make all needed revisions in preparation for submitting the final paper in Week 8. The matrices you will be building for Weeks 1 & 3 will be placed as appendices at the end of the paper (please see placeholders at the end of this paper).
This section is the Week 2 assignment. Provide a short introduction to historical leadership.
Great Man Theory
Provide a discussion on the Great Man Theory. Compare and contrast with other historical leadership theories. Please refer to the MEAL Plan document for writing a well-structured paragraph.
Provide a discussion on Trait Theory. Compare and contrast with other historical leadership theories. Please refer to the MEAL Plan document for writing a well-structured paragraph.
Provide a discussion on Behavioral Theory. Compare and contrast with other historical leadership theories. Please refer to the MEAL Plan document for writing a well-structured paragraph.
Provide a discussion on Skills Approach. Compare and contrast with other historical leadership theories. Please refer to the MEAL Plan document for writing a well-structured paragraph.
This section is the Week 4 assignment. Provide a short introduction to Contemporary Leadership.
Provide a discussion on Situational Leadership. Compare and contrast with other contemporary leadership theories. Please refer to the MEAL Plan document for writing a well-structured paragraph.
Provide a discussion on Transactional Leadership. Compare and contrast with other contemporary leadership theories. Please refer to the MEAL Plan document for writing a well-structured paragraph.
Provide a discussion on Transformational Leadership. Compare and contrast with other contemporary leadership theories. Please refer to the MEAL Plan document for writing a well-structured paragraph.
Provide a discussion on Servant Leadership. Compare and contrast with other contemporary leadership theories. Please refer to the MEAL Plan document for writing a well-structured paragraph.
Provide a discussion on the similarities and differences between/among historical leadership and contemporary leadership. What characteristics from historical leadership approaches transferred to contemporary leadership approaches?
Leadership and Followership
This section is the Week 5 assignment. Provide a short introduction and a substantiated discussion on Followership.
This section is the Week 6 assignment. Provide a short introduction and a substantiated discussion on Leadership Ethics.
Team Leadership and Decision-Making
This section is the Week 7 assignment. Provide a short introduction and a substantiated discussion on Leadership Ethics.
Leadership in (state your discipline)
This section is added during Week 8. Provide a short introduction and a substantiated discussion on a leadership topic of your choice, relative to your professional field. Is there a leadership theory/model best suited to your professional field? Why or why not? How do you see the effectiveness of your leadership style in your professional field? Would your leadership style be more effective in a different professional field? Why or why not?
The final paragraph needs to include a summary and conclusion.
Note: the journal, book, and dissertation sections are examples of how each type of publication is formatted, and the reference section should not be divided as this seems to indicate. All references are placed in alphabetical order by authors’ last names.
Formatting of Journal Articles:
Author, A. (2013). Title of article is written in sentence form with proper nouns being capitalized. Title of Journal in Italics as is the Volume Number, 31(22), 345-354.
Author, B. (2000). Title of article is written in sentence form with proper nouns being capitalized. Title of Journal in Italics as is the Volume Number, 31(22), 345-354.
Note how the issue number and page numbers are not in italics. Refer to the APA Manual, pp 198-202 for journal article formatting.
Formatting of Books:
Author, C. (1998). Titles of books are written in sentence form and placed in italics. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Refer to APA Manual, pp 202-205 for book formatting.
Formatting of Dissertations:
Author, A.A. (2003). Title of doctoral dissertation (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest (or the name of the database). (Order number or AN number)
Refer to APA Manual, p 207 for dissertation/theses formatting.
Digital Object Identifiers (DOI) is a fairly new system and journal articles have been, or are in the process, of being identified with a doi number. As an author, one of your responsibilities is to see if an article has been assigned a doi number, and if not, then you need to provide a direct link to the article, instead of providing a URL to a secured database. APA stated to avoid providing a URL to a secured database, such as ProQuest, EbscoHost, contentproxy.phoenix.edu, etc. If your reader is interested in researching one of your references and doesn’t have access to a secured database, then that individual will not be able to ‘easily’ locate the article.
Sometimes we must hunt a little to find a doi number or a direct link. When you see ‘search-proquest’ in a link, then you know the link is to a secured database, and a database the ‘average’ person will not have access too. The APA Manual provides more information on how to locate doi numbers for articles on pages 189-192, but the basics are:
Use Crossref Metadata: https://search.crossref.org (you will want to create a bookmark for easy access in the future, as you will be using this frequently)
When you click on the link, you will see a search bar. Copy/paste, or type in, the title of the article and hit ‘enter’. If the article you are using has been assigned a doi number, the article will usually be the first one listed in the results. If your article doesn’t show up in the search, then
that article has not been assigned a doi number yet.
If an article hasn’t been assigned a doi number, then Google and search the title of the article to see if a PDF copy is available online or if a direct link to the article is available.
If the above two don’t produce a doi number or a direct link, APA provided 2 examples in section 7.01, subsection 3: Journal article without DOI (when DOI is not available). Please refer to the examples in the manual on page 199.
More information on the use of doi numbers is in the APA Manual on pages 188-192.
Running head: THE CORE LEADERSHIP THEORIES 8
THE CORE LEADERSHIP THEORIES 13
Historical Leadership Matrix (this is the Week 1 assignment)
|Description/Approach||PrimaryCharacteristics||Strengths||Criticisms||Discipline Specific Applications|
|Great Man Theory||This theory assumes that the ability for one to lead is inherent. Thus, there is the assumption that leaders are born and not made (Uzohue, Yaya, & Akintayo, 2016).||The primary characteristics of this theory include identifying a leader through certain characteristics that they portray since they were born (Badshah, 2012). Features such as integrity, competence, and the desire to excel present in an individual since childhood can help identify a great leader.||This theory has produced effective leaders such as Martin Luther King, and John F. Kennedy (Landis, Hill, & Harvey, 2014). They have helped the society in massive ways thanks to the fact that they were identified using the great man theory.||Theorists often criticize this theory because they feel that women who were great leaders such as Catherine the Great were virtually ignored since men such as Jon F. Kennedy were hailed as the great men worthy to lead (Landis, Hill, & Harvey, 2014).||The great man theory can be applied in the group home heathcare by the leaders/directors to motivate the staff. Since the employees already idolize the leaders who are born with the leadership skills, this will make them to be motivated in the hope of acquiring traits like theirs. This is turn helps in boosting the productivity of the organization.|
|HISTORICAL APPROACHES||Trait Theory||This theory discovers leaders following the approach that leaders are born with special traits or qualities that make them better suited to lead (Uzohue, Yaya, & Akintayo, 2016). It illustrates the fact that ideal leaders are born with outstanding qualities in them.||According to Uzohue, Yaya, & Akintayo (2016), this theory identifies a leader based on certain traits. These characteristics include honesty, integrity, ambition, the desire to succeed, persistence, ambition, self-confidence, and determination.||The trait theory provides a criteria or benchmark of which to use when looking for a leader. This helps in eliminating the chances of enacting an incompetent leader (Badshah, 2012). Some of the traits include integrity and the ambition (Uzohue, Yaya, & Akintayo, 2016).||This theory is often criticized due to the fact that there is no definite criterion to determine the leadership traits that a leader should have. More so, this theory does not take into account the various situational effects that could impact the traits (Landis, Hill, & Harvey, 2014).||This theory can also be applied in the group home healthcare to discover the most effective team leaders especially during effective care implementation. This is because their traits will help in motivating the staffs (both new and old) to actively participate in the giving the clients daily care needed.|
|Behavioral Theory||The behavioral theory is an approach that states that great leaders are made. It believes that the actions of an individual can be trimmed in order to make them effective leaders (Uzohue, Yaya, & Akintayo, 2016).||This theory believes that leaders are made and not born through;· Training to become effective leaders· Observation of the actions of great leaders in the society (Uzohue, Yaya, & Akintayo, 2016).||The strength of the behavioral approach is the fact that it is heuristic. An individual can assess their actions and determine the various values and traits they acquire during such situations. This can help them in molding their actions to ensure they are competent leaders (Uzohue, Yaya, & Akintayo, 2016).||The criticism of this theory is the idea that there is no research to prove that certain behaviors and traits can be used to change the actions of an individual and make them worthy of being a leader (Landis, Hill, & Harvey, 2014).||This theory can be applied in a group homes looking to hire managers or staff (ones with compassion and heart for taking care of people) at a certain hierarchical level. By training them, the organization can acquire effective leaders and staff.|
|Skills Approach||The skills approach argues that an effective leader has significant leading qualities that are acquired from learning acquiring knowledge on how to lead, and developing a good leadership style (Uzohue, Yaya, & Akintayo, 2016).||Uzohue, Yaya, & Akintayo, (2016)state that the basic features of the skills theory is that for an individual to be an effective leader using this theory, the individual must have;· Learnt leadership skills· Have essential leadership knowledge· Have a greatleadership style||The strength of this theory is that it does not single out a specific individual but however describes a leadership theory applicable to everyone. More so, it helps in developing a strong approach of how individuals can understand the concept of leadership (Landis, Hill, & Harvey, 2014).||Theorists consider this a weak theory since it does not provide a strong predictive value of how training and observation will impact the performance of an individual to make them an effective leader (Landis, Hill, & Harvey, 2014).||The skills approach is applied when determining which leader is best suited for a certain position in group home healthcare. This is by evaluating their leadership style, and the knowledge they have on how to effectively train and lead the staff, who in return apply the skill to promote the clients’ wellbeing.|
|ReferencesBadshah, S. (2012). Historical study of leadership theories. Journal of Strategic Human Resource Management, 1(1), 49.Landis, E. A., Hill, D., & Harvey, M. R. (2014). A synthesis of leadership theories and styles. Journal of Management Policy and Practice, 15(2), 97.Uzohue, C., Yaya, J., & Akintayo, O. A. (2016). A review of leadership theories, principles, styles and their relevance to management of health science libraries in Nigeria. Journal of Educational Leadership and Policy, 1(1), 17-26.|
Contemporary Leadership Matrix (this is the Week 3 assignment)
|Description/Approach||PrimaryCharacteristics||Strengths||Criticisms||Discipline Specific Applications|
|CONTEMPORARY APPROACHES||Situational Leadership|
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