Analyze the relationships and expectations of a particular cultural group

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Module 2 – SLP

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Module 2 – SLP

It is important to analyze the relationships and expectations of a particular cultural group. This will help in addressing health issue which may be facing that particular cultural group. This paper seeks to specifically address how each of the PEN-3 model’s three factors within the dimension of Relationships and Expectations may apply to my selected cultural group.

Relationship and expectation domain of the PEN-3 model consists of three factors. The three elements include Perceptions, Enablers, and Nurturers. These factors may be applicable to a certain cultural group when attempting to address a particular health issue. Relationships and expectations relates to the perceptions or attitudes which the people of a particular cultural group have towards a particular health problem. This particular project will be examining the perceptions and attitudes which African Americans have towards diabetes as a health problem at hand. The available societal or structural resources will help in reducing the prevalence of diabetes among the African Americans. Various health care services help in promoting good health practices. Effective health-seeking practices will also be discouraged as a way of reducing diabetes prevalence. The influence which family and kin has in nurturing decisions surrounding effective management of health problems such as diabetes will be examined.


There are a number of perceptions which will affect diabetes disease management among the African Americans. Examples of these perceptions include feeling highly confident, fears about diabetes complications, and denial. It will be easy to manage diabetes disease among the African Americans who feel highly confident. On the other hand it will be difficult to manage diabetes diseases among the African Americans who fear complications of diabetes. Those who fear diabetes may not even bother to go and seek medication. This is the same case to individuals who deny having diabetes. These factors are therefore significant in trying to manage and control prevalence of diabetes among the African Americans.


Enablers are also important factors in trying to manage the prevalence of diabetes among the African Americans. Enablers are of two types which include positive enablers and negative enablers. Examples of positive enablers include religion and social support. On the other hand examples of negative enablers include disliking needles, time consumption, and cost of healthy foods. Religion will play a significant role in managing diabetes among the African Americans. It will be easy to manage this particular health problem among African Americans who are very religious as compared to those who are not religious. Social support will contribute positively in managing the prevalence of diabetes among the African Americans. This is because the people who have social support from family members and work mates are likely to be encouraged to seek medication. The African Americans who dislike needles may not go and seek diabetes treatment. Those who do not consume healthy foods may not end up living for long. These negative enablers may make it difficult to manage diabetes disease among the African Americans.


Examples of nurturers include family, friends, and health care providers. Nurturers play a great role in managing and controlling diabetes. Family and friends meet the cost of health care for diabetic patients. They also play an important role of giving moral support to diabetic patients. They may also offer advice on how to live healthier by practicing good health behaviors. Health care providers will provide adequate nursing care to diabetic patients and offering guidance on the appropriate foods to consume. Nurturers therefore positively contribute to controlling the prevalence of diabetes disease among the African Americans.


Iwelunmor, J., Newsome, V., & Airhihenbuwa, C. O. (2014). Framing the impact of culture on health: a systematic review of the PEN-3 cultural model and its application in public health research and interventions. Ethnicity & health, 19(1), 20-46.

King, C. J., Moreno, J., Coleman, S. V., & Williams, J. F. (2018). Diabetes mortality rates among African Americans: A descriptive analysis pre and post Medicaid expansion. Preventive medicine reports, 12, 20-24.

Purcell, N., & Cutchen, L. (2013). Diabetes self-management education for African Americans: Using the PEN-3 model to assess needs. American Journal of Health Education, 44(4), 203-212.


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