Should public and private entities such as insurers, employers, courts, schools, adoption agencies, and the military have access to personal genetic information?

Should public and private entities such as insurers, employers, courts, schools, adoption agencies, and the military have access to personal genetic information?


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PCB3060 Paper instructions Prof. S. Williams


Course Paper Guidelines

Overview As citizens of the 21st Century it is no exaggeration to claim that we are witnessing the ascendency of the biotechnological age. Rapid and dramatic advances in genetics have had profound impacts upon scientific, medical and environmental technologies and have radically altered the understanding of ourselves as human organisms within a global ecosystem. Such scientific progress has undoubtedly raised important ethical and often controversial issues which play significant roles in determining how we view, act and manage ourselves within an ever-changing social context catalyzed by the technologies we create. In this activity students will explore some of these polemics and develop well-informed positions within the sphere of public discourse.

You are required to write a short argumentative essay on any ONE of the genetics- based bioethical issues listed below:

1. Should public and private entities such as insurers, employers, courts, schools,

adoption agencies, and the military have access to personal genetic information?

2. Does genomic sequencing help or harm minority communities?

3. Will increased access to genetic information lead society to more discrimination?

4. Is the use of fetal genetic screening unethical?

5. Should parents have to right to choose their children based on genetics?

6. Should genetic testing be performed for diseases when no treatment is


7. Should parents have the right to have their minor children tested for adult-onset


8. Do genetically modified foods and organisms pose a serious threat to public

health and the environment?

9. Are GMOs beneficial to the development of Third World countries?

ADDITIONAL INSTRUCTIONS • Your paper MUST contain well supported arguments made on BOTH sides of the

issue you selected. The arguments should include in-text citations from scholarly articles, studies and scientific reports (e.g. using Google Scholar or MDC library databases). Avoid the overuse of quotations. The conclusion of the essay must include your own opinion (with justification) on the topic.

• Your paper should be 3 – 4 pages in length (min: 3, max: 4) typed, default- spaced (1.5) 12-pt font. A bibliography is REQUIRED in APA format and is not included in your page count. Do not add cover pages, photos, charts or diagrams to your review. This is an assessment of your original writing so please




PCB3060 Paper instructions Prof. S. Williams


review the College’s policies on academic dishonesty and plagiarism at

The paper will be graded on the following components:

Paper Component Points Awarded Introduction & definition of terms 5

Affirmative arguments, with examples 10 Negative arguments, with examples 10

Evidence cited 5 Author’s conclusion/opinion 10

Bibliography 5 Presentation (spelling, grammar, creativity) 5

Total 50 An “A” Paper/Essay: A paper that is exceptional. It is interesting or unusual and demonstrates sophistication of thought. The main points are clear, complex, well developed, and well supported. The structure of the paper follows a clear logical organization, and all sources are critically examined. The sources are current, relevant, of high quality, and well-integrated in the paper. The paper is free of grammatical and spelling errors. A “B” Paper/Essay: A paper that is solid and fulfills the assignment. It has a clear logic but minor lapses in development. It touches on the complexity of the argument and shows careful reading of the sources. The structure follows a logical progression of ideas, but not all evidence is clearly related to the main ideas. It may contain a few grammatical problems, but not enough to make reading difficult. A “C” Paper/Essay: A paper that is adequate but less effective in responding to the assignment. It presents the central idea in general terms and demonstrates basic comprehension of the sources. It is difficult to find a logical structure to the argument, and the paper often relies on generalizations or unrelated examples. Sentences may be awkward or confusing enough to make reading difficult. A “D” Paper/Essay: A paper that does not respond to the assignment. The argument may be too vague or there is little complexity to the ideas. The organizations can be difficult to follow, and the paper offers insufficient evidence from the literature. No integration of the literature reviewed is evident. An “F” Paper/Essay: A paper that does not respond to the assignment, has no central argument, and uses no sources. There is little apparent organization. There is no supporting evidence, or it is irrelevant.


PAPER IS DUE ON • MONDAY NOVEMBER 21, 2022 • LATE SUBMISSIONS WILL NOT BE ACCEPTED! • The paper must be uploaded to a designated Turnitin Folder on Blackboard • Turnitin matching report must NOT exceed 20%. Papers exceeding 20%

will not be accepted and will receive an automatic zero grade. • OPTIONAL: Students may submit an early draft for review by the professor. The

“draft” must be a COMPLETE paper with less than 20% Turnitin match and must be submitted as a MS Word Document (.doc/.docx) attachment via email no later than November 7, 2022.


genetics- based bioethical issues


The last few decades have seen an explosion in the understanding of genetic disorders, inherited diseases, and gene therapy. This has led to promising new treatments for conditions such as diabetes, cancer, and heart disease. For example, doctors can now detect these disorders at an early stage of development using genetic testing. In addition to being able to improve health care outcomes, genetic technologies are being used by parents who want to select their children’s traits before they are born; this is sometimes called prenatal diagnosis or selective abortion (i.e., aborting fetuses with certain genes). Similarly there is a growing trend toward eugenics – that is improving the future generation through selective breeding (also called positive eugenics). These topics will be covered in more detail later in this article.

genetic testing

Genetic testing is used to determine if a person is at risk of developing or passing on a disease. It can also be used to find out whether an individual has inherited certain characteristics from their parents (e.g., eye color) and whether they have any genetic conditions such as cystic fibrosis or sickle-cell anemia that are present in their family history.

The decision about whether to undergo genetic testing should depend on how much personal information you want to disclose, your age, health status and other considerations like privacy concerns or religious beliefs.

genetic engineering

Genetic engineering is a way to manipulate genes in an organism, usually an animal or plant. This can be done by adding DNA (the genetic material) from another species into the genome of an existing organism. This has been used to produce protein-based medicines, such as insulin and human growth hormone, which were developed from the modification of bacteria and yeast cells rather than animals. Another example is bacteria that produce antibiotics when they’re exposed to certain chemicals; these are produced by inserting genes from other organisms into standard probiotics (bacteria which live symbiotically with humans).

The potential risks and benefits of genetic engineering are hotly debated by scientists who disagree about whether it should be allowed at all: some argue that its use should be limited because there’s no evidence that it will ever work as well as traditional methods like selective breeding; others believe we’re too close to figuring out how best use this technology without restrictions on its use now would cause harm–or even prevent progress altogether! Still others feel strongly that any restrictions imposed now might result in unnecessary sacrifice later down the line due directly caused by ignorance over what those restrictions mean today could mean tomorrow.”

prenatal diagnosis and selective abortion.

In the context of postnatal genetics, prenatal diagnosis is a process by which a genetic test can be performed on an embryo or fetus to determine its health at the time of birth. This is often done if there are risks associated with carrying a child with a particular disorder or disease. For example, some people choose not to have children because they fear that their children will develop schizophrenia (a genetic disorder). A woman may also choose not to have children if she knows that her partner has an inherited disease that could be passed down through generations after they die.

In these cases, it would be unethical for doctors and other health professionals involved in such decisions (such as doctors) not only because it violates autonomy but also because it could lead them into creating tragedies without any real purpose behind them; namely: creating new lifeforms simply so others won’t suffer anymore.”

eugenics – that is, the moral use of genetics to improve future generations

Eugenics is a controversial idea that we should make changes in our environment to protect people from harm, particularly genetically based harm. The term was coined by Francis Galton in 1883 and he believed that improving the genes of future generations would lead to betterment of society as a whole. He called this “eugenic improvement” and believed it would be achieved through selective breeding (breeding animals with certain traits). In his view, those with undesirable traits could be avoided or eliminated from society altogether.

environmentalism – the idea that we should make changes in our environment to protect people from harm, particularly genetically based harm

Environmentalism is the idea that we should make changes in our environment to protect people from harm, particularly genetically based harm. Environmentalism is a philosophy that believes we should make changes in our environment to protect people from harm, particularly genetically based harm.

Genetics is a very hot issue right now.

Genetics is a very hot issue right now.

Genetic testing is a very hot issue right now.

Genetic engineering is a very hot issue right now.

Prenatal diagnosis and selective abortion are very hot issues right now


Genetics is a very hot issue right now. People are concerned about the effects of genetic testing and engineering on their children, just as they are concerned about changes in their environment that might be harmful. It’s important to remember that no matter what you think about these topics, it is always best for everyone involved when we work together rather than against each other!

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