Fiona is a 29-year-old woman who works in a medical factory making medical equipment.

 Fiona is a 29-year-old woman who works in a medical factory making medical equipment. She lives with her husband and in-laws. Over the last week, she has been more isolative, saying strange things to her husband, and not sleeping due to unidentified fearfulness. The only stressor that her husband can identify is that they started talking about having children. Fiona refuses to do her ADLs, eats very little, and appears intermittently in a trancelike state. The family was becoming more and more concerned and attempted to get Fiona to see their family doctor, but she was refusing. Finally, police were called due to worsening regressed behavior and Fiona was brought to the local emergency department (ED) for evaluation. The ED physician examined her and reported after labs and neuroimaging that she was medically stable. Although the patient reported no history of psychiatric illness, she did report that her maternal grandmother was in a state hospital for most of her life. The physician recommended psychiatric hospitalization for new onset of a psychotic illness.

    1. Summarize the clinical case.
    1. What is the DSM5 diagnosis?  Identify the rationale for your diagnosis using the DSM5 diagnostic criteria.
    1. According to the clinical guidelines, which one pharmacological treatment is most appropriate to prescribe? Include the medication name, dose, frequency and rationale for this treatment.
    1. According to the clinical guidelines, which one non-pharmacological treatment would you prescribe? (exclude psychotherapy modalities)  Include the risk and benefits of the chosen rationale for this treatment.
    1. Include an assessment of medication’s appropriateness, cost, effectiveness, safety, and potential for patient adherence.
    1. Use a local pharmacy to research the cost of the medication. Use great detail when answering questions 3-5.



pharmacological treatment


Agoraphobia is a type of anxiety disorder characterized by an intense fear of having a panic attack in public or other situations where the individual may feel unable to escape. It’s estimated that approximately three percent of people living with agoraphobia are also alcohol dependent.

There is no standard pharmacological treatment for agoraphobia.

There is no standard pharmacological treatment for agoraphobia.

Pharmacological treatments are not always necessary, and they can be combined with psychological therapy if you have a severe phobia. They may also be used together with other forms of therapy such as cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT). Pharmacological treatments include anti-anxiety drugs like diazepam and clonazepam; antidepressants such as SSRIs and SNRIs; benzodiazepines such as triazolam; buspirone; antipsychotics/anticonvulsants such as risperidone or quetiapine/quetiapine fumarate which can be prescribed off-label by psychiatrists without special training in anxiety disorders but are still considered to be effective when used according to published guidelines at least some researchers believe that these drugs should not be prescribed during pregnancy because they can lead to birth defects if used during pregnancy however this still needs further research before we know whether these risks outweigh any benefits so please consult your doctor before taking any medication

Medication may not be necessary for the treatment of agoraphobia.

Medication may not be necessary for the treatment of agoraphobia. In fact, medication can actually worsen your symptoms and make them worse. Although there are some people who benefit from medication, it’s important to understand that not all patients will respond well to antidepressants or antianxiety medications.

Psychotherapy is an excellent way to treat anxiety disorders like agoraphobia because it teaches you how fear arises in your brain and how you can manage it by learning new skills through practice over time (like relaxation techniques). Psychotherapy also teaches you about what triggers your fears so that when they arise again in the future (like seeing someone on a plane), you’re better able to handle them successfully by taking deep breaths or forcing yourself into another situation where this person isn’t present—for example: going out shopping instead of flying alone; having lunch with friends instead of going home alone after work; etcetera!

Many people experience a reduced desire to drink alcohol, which may help to reduce the risk of relapse.

Alcohol is a depressant, which means that it slows down your brain activity. This can make you feel tired and sleepy after drinking alcohol. Alcohol also slows down your breathing, so if you drink too much it can cause you to stop breathing in some cases.

Alcohol is a sedative, meaning that it causes the brain to become less active or relaxed than normal (as opposed to being hyperactive). This combined with its depressant effects may lead to feelings of relaxation and euphoria (feeling good).

The following medications may be prescribed by a healthcare provider to help treat agoraphobia:

Medications are an option for treating agoraphobia. They can be used alone or in combination with other treatments and therapies, including psychotherapy and counseling.

Medications may be most effective when they are combined with other treatments that help you learn to manage your symptoms of agoraphobia effectively. This means that the medications work best if they’re taken along with one or more types of therapy (such as psychological counseling). Even so, medication alone is still important because it reduces some of the anxiety that occurs when you have to leave your house or go out in public places alone.

One type of medication used commonly for this purpose is beta-blockers like propranolol (Inderide), which slow down heart rate and breathing while reducing stress hormones like cortisol circulating through the body; these medications can also help reduce symptoms such as sweating, shaking hands/fists/feet etc., but don’t eliminate them completely

Medications commonly used to treat panic attacks include:

Medications commonly used to treat panic attacks include:

Antidepressants. These medications can be helpful for some people with panic disorder, but they won’t work for everyone.

Benzodiazepines (such as Ativan). This class of drugs works by decreasing anxiety and helping you relax, making it easier for you to breathe normally again. They’re usually prescribed by doctors who want to use them as a short-term treatment option until antidepressants become effective in calming down your nervous system’s overreaction to stressors like losing a job or being away from home suddenly due to travel plans falling through at the last minute (or something else). However, benzodiazepines aren’t recommended long term because they may have side effects such as dizziness and drowsiness that might impair your ability to drive safely after taking them too often; they also make it harder for people who take them regularly throughout their lives without any other health issues developing later down the line—such as heart disease—to quit taking these types of drugs cold turkey without experiencing withdrawal symptoms first!

Medications are most effective when combined with psychotherapy or other types of counseling.

Psychotherapy is the most effective treatment for agoraphobia, but medications can be used in combination with psychotherapy. Medications alone are not as effective as psychotherapy and may have side effects or interactions with other medications you’re taking.

Medications like antidepressants, beta-blockers (like Inderal), antihistamines (like Claritin) and tranquilizers can help manage symptoms of anxiety. They don’t cure the condition itself; instead they work by reducing the intensity of your fears so that you feel more comfortable going outside again once your prescribed treatment period has ended

Agoraphobia can be successfully treated with a combination of psychological therapy and medication.

Agoraphobia is a subtype of panic disorder that causes severe anxiety in situations where the person feels trapped or trapped by an overwhelming fear. This can happen when they have to leave their home, go outside and face other people, or be away from their familiar surroundings.

Agoraphobia can be successfully treated with a combination of psychological therapy and medication. Medication alone is not a good treatment option for agoraphobia because it does not address the underlying issues causing people’s fears about leaving home; however it may help relieve some symptoms such as sweating, racing heart rate and dizziness during panic attacks associated with leaving the house. Psychotherapy alone is also not effective at treating agoraphobia because it doesn’t teach patients how best manage their condition without having any access outside its walls (i.e., getting into an elevator). However combined psychotherapy plus medication works well together providing both physical relief from stress related conditions like high blood pressure along with emotional stability which allows individuals suffering from these disorders better control over their lives through increased productivity levels at work/school etcetera.”


Agoraphobia can be successfully treated with a combination of psychological therapy and medication. The goal of treatment is for you to learn how to control your fear, anxiety, and panic attacks. You may find it helpful to talk with someone who has experience treating agoraphobia.

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