Bonds and Risk

Finance – Week 3 Assignment

Bonds and Risk

Write a 750 to 1000 word paper. In your paper include the following:

·  Research your organization and assess whether or not the organization has outstanding bonds payable or has invested in bonds from another organization. Do you support their choice to use bonds for financing or investment purposes? Why or why not? What benefits and risks do bonds present versus other forms of financing?

Include a title page and 3-5 references.  Only one reference may be from the internet not (Wikipedia).  The other references must be from the Grantham University online library.  Please adhere to the Concise Guide to APA Style when writing and submitting assignments and papers.


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Bonds and Risk


Bonds are a way to invest in a company’s future. They promise you that if the company pays back what it owes on its debt (interest), you will get back more. This means that bonds are also known as fixed-income assets because they have fixed interest payments over time. In this article, we’ll learn how bonds work, how they differ from stocks and mutual funds, and how they can be used to diversify your portfolio or protect against inflation.

Risk and Return

Risk and return are related to each other.

Risk is what you give up to get return.

Return is the profit you make after investing in something, such as a bond or stock.

What are bonds?

Bonds are debt securities issued by governments, corporations and other entities that must be repaid with interest. They can also be used to finance projects or services. The most common types of bonds include corporate bonds and Treasury bills (T-bills).

Bonds are sold to investors in exchange for cash at a price determined by the bond’s yield—the return an investor expects on their investment when they buy it back later at maturity date. When you buy a bond, you’re effectively committing yourself to repay its full face value plus interest at maturity date based on your expectation of future market rates (this is called “maturity risk”).

The secondary market for bonds allows investors to sell their holdings once they’ve been redeemed from issuers or matured into cash equivalents such as T-bills

How to buy bonds

Buying and selling bonds is the easiest way to invest in the bond market. You can do it through a broker, who will typically charge a fee for their services. Before buying a bond, you’ll want to determine its price, which is determined by interest rates (the annual amount of money that must be paid back over time) and creditworthiness (how much risk there is that the issuer will default on its obligations).

If you want to buy a bond directly from an issuer or through an online brokerage account like ETrade, then making sure you understand how your money will be used is important—this ensures that you won’t end up losing any money if they go belly up during this process!

How interest works in bonds

Bonds are fixed income assets. They’re issued by companies, governments and other organizations to raise money. Interest is paid on a regular basis as part of the bond’s coupon rate (the amount of interest paid on each payment). The coupon rate is usually set at a level that allows investors to earn an attractive return while still protecting them from market risk.

Bonds are often traded in the secondary market, meaning they can be bought and sold between investors without having first been issued by a company or government agency.

Bond ratings: a tool to measure risk

When you buy a bond, it’s important to understand the risk involved. The rating of a bond is an indicator of its riskiness and can help you choose between different types of bonds.

Bond ratings are issued by agencies like Standard & Poor’s, Moody’s and Fitch (S&P). They evaluate the likelihood that an issuer will default on its obligations by estimating interest rates paid out over time; this is called “maturity risk.” The higher the rating grade assigned by each agency, the lower risk there will be associated with holding this particular type of debt instrument versus other types within that same category—for example: if one were buying Russian government securities with an AA+ rating from S&P but another Russian government security issued by another entity had a BB– rating then we would expect our return looking forward over 20 years would be higher than if we bought both securities at their current prices rather than going through with just buying one at all times during our investment horizon!

What happens if a bond issuer defaults?

If a bond issuer defaults, it can declare bankruptcy. This means that the company is unable to pay back any of its loans or bonds. It may be able to pay back some or all of what it owes on its debts, but not all of the principal amount (the face value) and interest payments due on those debts. In other words:

The bond holder owns some fractional ownership in this entity and will get paid back before anyone else does;

The borrower probably won’t get paid back at all;

The lender may only receive partial repayment from their original investment (the remaining value).

Recovering principal and interest

When a bond is issued, you are lending money to the issuer. If the issuer defaults on its obligations and does not repay your money, then you may not get your money back. In fact, if it doesn’t pay off any interest payments that come due during any given year (which is usually long after maturity), then it will go into default. Most bonds have specified terms for when they can be called or redeemed; typically this occurs after 7 or 10 years (depending on whether they’re rated Aaa or lower). You can sell these bonds at some point before that date in an attempt to recover some or all of your principal investment plus any accrued interest—but note that there are fees involved with doing so and sometimes considerable risk associated with trading securities like these!

Stay away from risky bonds.

Most bonds are safe, but some are riskier than others. If you’re looking for a good return on your investment, it’s best to stick with safe bonds that offer low returns and low risk.

Risky bond: A risky bond has a higher probability of default than an average bond and/or has lower expected return than an average bond.

Safe Bond: A safe bond is one that has low probability of default and high expected return (i.e., similar).


We have hopefully given you a good understanding of bonds and their role in investing. The most important thing to remember is that it’s not just about buying high-quality bonds – it’s about keeping your portfolio diversified and avoiding the temptation to invest in riskier bonds. If you want to invest for retirement or want more information on how bonds work, then we recommend checking out our article on how interest works in bonds.

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